Who among the Russians is being mobilized for the war in Ukraine

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On the morning of September 21, a partial mobilization began in Russia – a decree on it was signed by Vladimir Putin. Such a measure was introduced for the first time in the history of modern Russia, so it is difficult to say exactly how it will work. The main thing can be understood based on current and newly adopted laws, as well as Putin’s decree and Defense Minister Shoigu’s statement.

The BBC answers questions about the mobilization announced in Russia.

Who can be mobilized and go to fight in Ukraine?

According to the law on mob training and mobilization, citizens who are in the reserve and do not have an unexpired or unexpired criminal record for committing a serious crime are subject to conscription for military service.

The decision to draft a specific person is made by the draft commission on the basis of orders (stated by the Ministry of Defense of the needs of servicemen in certain specialties) and the conclusions of the medical commission.

As Putin stated, conscription for military service will be subject to “primarily those who have served in the ranks of the armed forces, have certain military accounting specialties and relevant experience.” He did not hide that the decision to mobilize was dictated by the need to strengthen the line of combat between the Russian and Ukrainian troops, emphasizing its length – more than a thousand kilometers.

Taking into account the nature of the hostilities on the territory of Ukraine, it can be assumed with great confidence that people who served in ground combat units will be in demand first of all – riflemen, machine gunners, snipers, scouts, grenade launchers, mortarmen, gunners, sappers, signalmen, mechanic drivers .

The reserve also includes the so-called “mobilization human reserve”. These are reservists who have signed a contract with the Ministry of Defense. According to its terms, in peacetime they participate in military exercises and meetings, keeping the average salary and receiving additional payments, and in case of declaration of martial law, they independently go to the military unit to which they are assigned. Their mobilization will be affected first.

Can women be drafted?

The law does not determine the gender of a citizen subject to mobilization. As mentioned above, military accounting specialty and medical indicators are of primary importance.

Women who have not even served in combat land units can be called up for military service if they have a specialty in one of the areas listed below and are on military registration:

  • Communication;
  • Computers;
  • Optical and soundometric means of measurement and meteorology;
  • Medicine;
  • Printing industry;
  • Cartography

What about age?

Reservists are divided into three categories according to age.

For example, the first rank includes soldiers, sergeants, sergeants and ensigns up to 35 years old, junior officers up to 50 years old, majors and lieutenant colonels up to 55 years old, colonels up to 60 years old, generals up to 65 years old. For the second and third degrees, the age increases.

For example, a reserve serviceman of the 3rd rank in the rank of private to ensign can be mobilized until reaching 50 years of age, and an officer in the rank of junior lieutenant to captain – up to 60.

In the case of mobilization, priority is given to the first rank, but if there are still not enough people, the draft can go in waves – first those who are younger will be called, then those who are older.

After reaching the maximum age of service in the reserve, servicemen must be removed from the register and transferred to retirement.

But if necessary, the Russian authorities can raise the maximum age in one day. It is enough to convene the State Duma.

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Photo author, Reuters

Minister of Defense Serhii Shoigu promised that students and those currently serving under the draft are not subject to mobilization. However, this is also provided for by the general law on mobilization. It does not apply to conscripts and, in general, citizens of draft age (up to 27 years old) who have not yet served – because they are not in the reserve.

Graduates of military departments of universities are not equal to those who have completed military service, says the chairman of the Committee of the Federation Council on Defense and Security Viktor Bondarev.

Can I get a deferral?

There is a list of postponements for conscription for mobilization. It is determined by a separate article of the law.

In particular, those who have “reservations” (for example, representatives of local self-government bodies, employees of infrastructure organizations, etc.) will be able to receive a postponement. In the decree of the President of the Russian Federation, it is specified separately that employees of the defense-industrial complex have the right to deferment for the period of work in their organizations.

Also, the right to a postponement from mobilization has the right to be temporarily unfit for health (fitness categories G and D), those who care for disabled relatives, have four or more children or three children and a pregnant wife, as well as deputies of the State Duma, members of the Federation Council and other.

How is mobilization carried out? Does it have a deadline? How many people should be recruited?

Notification that a person is called up for service by mobilization can come in the form of one of several documents – a mobilization order, a summons or an order of military commissariats.

According to the law, valid reasons for not appearing on a summons are considered to be illness or disability associated with loss of working capacity, serious health condition of close relatives or force majeure. Falsification of documents is considered as evasion of military service.

According to Shoigu, 300,000 reservists will be called up during the mobilization. The open part of the presidential decree does not contain these data, as well as information about the end of mobilization.

What will be the status of those called up for mobilization?

According to Putin’s decree, from the moment of being called up for mobilization, citizens have the status of servicemen who undergo military service under a contract. They are covered by all the guarantees provided by the law on the status of a military serviceman.

The amount of monetary support, additional payments for participation in hostilities and various compensations is established by the Russian government.

Conscripts can resign from service on the same grounds as contract workers – after reaching the age limit, due to health conditions, or due to a court sentence on deprivation of liberty.

The day before, the State Duma introduced amendments to the Criminal Code, which increase the punishment for desertion and voluntary abandonment of a unit during the mobilization period.

Is it possible to go abroad now from mobilization?

Even Putin’s spokesman Dmytro Peskov does not know the answer to this question yet.

When asked by journalists to clarify the possibility of closing borders for those subject to partial mobilization, he replied: “I cannot answer this question now. You know that there are different provisions on this in the current laws. Let’s be a little patient Clarifications will follow in this regard.”

According to SPL member Kyril Kabanov, there is no legal ban on leaving the place of residence for partial mobilization, but it is effective from the moment of receiving the summons.

However, according to the law, citizens who are on military registration are prohibited from leaving their place of residence without the permission of military commissariats from the moment of the announcement of mobilization.

“That is, the restriction applies to all persons who are on the military register, regardless of whether they are subject to mobilization or not. How this restriction will work in practice and whether travel abroad will be limited is unknown. We have already seen public statements by officials about that there will be no restrictions, but the law clearly states that leaving without a special permit is prohibited,” lawyer Oleksandr Peredruk told the BBC.

Although in this case it is not about general, but about partial mobilization, current laws do not stipulate such a concept, it is quite possible that the Russian authorities will quickly eliminate this legal gap.

For example, they can introduce a ban on travel abroad or outside the region/district for certain categories of citizens. As it was during the coronavirus pandemic, when travel outside the region was blocked without a QR code. Well, now – without a certificate from the Military Commissariat.

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The article is in Ukrainian

Tags: among Russians mobilized war Ukraine

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